A review of the roots and shoots

Black men are six times more likely to be imprisoned than white men in the States. But here, it has been happening more quietly. At the same time, paradoxically and with resounding silence from the public, incarceration rates hit an all time high.

A review of the roots and shoots

Sclerotium rot Cyst nema Three lists of Cannabis diseases have been collated recently. Termorshuizen lists diseases by their causal organisms, alphabetically. His discussion is weighted by disease severity and organized geographically. But he is not entirely critical of old taxonomy. Their list is not weighted by disease severity nor critical of taxonomy.

The taxonomy of Cannabis pathogens has been ignored since the s.

A review of the roots and shoots

Research reveals many of these species are misidentifications or taxonomic synonyms McPartland a-e. This review is presented taxonomically, weighted by severity. Discussion is organized primarily for fiber crops and geographically centered in Europe.


The review does not discuss control measures. By far the most significant is gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana.

A review of Cannabis diseases

Gray mold presents in three scenarios, depending on plant maturity and cultivar. Seedlings succumb to damping off, discussed below. In fiber cultivars gray mold presents as a stem disease.

It arises as a gray-brown mat of mycelium which becomes covered by masses of conidia fungal spores. Stems become chlorotic at margins of the mat. Enzymes released by B. Stems often snap at canker sites. Gray mold may encircle and girdle stems, wilting everything above the canker.

Fiber varieties become more susceptible after canopy closure.

In field experiments in the Netherlands the disease was found from the beginning of July Van der Werf and Van Geel, Van der Werf et al. In drug cultivars, gray mold infests flowering tops. Large moisture-retaining female buds are most susceptible. Fan leaflets first turn yellow and wilt, then pistils begin to brown.

Whole inflorescences soon become enveloped in a fuzzy gray mycelium then degrade into a gray-brown slime. Drug varieties are most susceptible during flowering near harvest time. Dense tightly-packed buds of Cannabis afghanica Clarke tend to hold moisture and easily rot Clarke Afghan cultivars evolved in very arid conditions and have no resistance to gray mold.

This unfavorable trait is often expressed in hybrids that have only a small percentage of C. For the second most important disease, Termorshuizen lists hemp canker. This diease is caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Hemp canker has also appeared on drug cultivars in India Bilgrami et al. Symptoms begin as watersoaked lesions on stems and branches of plants nearing maturity.Young People Making A Difference.

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McPartland, J. M., A review of Cannabis ashio-midori.coml of the International Hemp Association 3(1): Diseases of Cannabis are caused by organisms or abiotic ashio-midori.comsms include fungi (first and foremost), nematodes, parasitic plants, bacteria, and viruses. 1 Roots & Shoots reviews. A free inside look at company reviews and salaries posted anonymously by employees.5/5(1).

On December 21, , Barack Obama wrote a short review of William Ayers’ book A Kind and Just Parent: The Children of Juvenile Court, which had recently been published by Beacon ashio-midori.com’s a photo of how the review appeared in the Chicago Tribune: (Bloggers, journalists and media members are all free to re-post this image with no restrictions.

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