A short history of nitroglycerin

Alfred Nobel joined Pelouze in and recognized the potential of NG. He began manufacturing NG in Sweden, overcoming handling problems with his patent detonator. Nobel suffered acutely from angina and was later to refuse NG as a treatment.

A short history of nitroglycerin

The main use of nitroglycerin, by tonnage, is in explosives such as dynamite and in propellants. Nitroglycerin is an oily liquid that may explode when subjected to heat, shock, or flame.

Alfred Nobel developed the use of nitroglycerin as a blasting explosive by mixing nitroglycerin with inert absorbentsparticularly "Kieselguhr", or diatomaceous earth.

He named this explosive dynamite and patented it in Dynamite and similar explosives were widely adopted for civil engineering tasks, such as in drilling highway and railroad tunnelsfor miningfor clearing farmland of stumps, in quarryingand in demolition work.

Likewise, military engineers have used dynamite for construction and demolition work. Nitroglycerin was also used as an ingredient in military propellants for use in firearms.

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Nitroglycerin has been used in conjunction with hydraulic fracturinga process used to recover oil and gas from shale formations. The technique involves displacing and detonating nitroglycerin in natural or hydraulically induced fracture systems, or displacing and detonating nitroglycerin in hydraulically induced fractures followed by wellbore shots using pelletized TNT.

Therefore, it is useful as an ingredient in the formulation of various kinds of smokeless powder. It remains important in military engineering, and combat engineers still use dynamite.

Alfred Nobel then developed ballistiteby combining nitroglycerin and guncotton. He patented it in Ballistite was adopted by a number of European governments, as a military propellant.

Italy was the first to adopt it. Ballistite and cordite were both manufactured in the forms of "cords".

Smokeless powders were originally developed using nitrocellulose as the sole explosive ingredient. Therefore, they were known as single-base propellants.

A short history of nitroglycerin

A range of smokeless powders that contains both nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, known as double-base propellants, were also developed. Smokeless powders were originally supplied only for military use, but they were also soon developed for civilian use and were quickly adopted for sports.

Some are known as sporting powders. Triple-base propellants contain nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and nitroguanidinebut are reserved mainly for extremely high-caliber ammunition rounds such as those used in tank cannons and naval artillery.

Blasting gelatin, also known as gelignitewas invented by Nobel inusing nitroglycerin, wood pulpand sodium or potassium nitrate. This was an early, low-cost, flexible explosive. Medical use of nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin belongs to a group of drugs called nitrates, which includes many other nitrates like isosorbide dinitrate Isordil and isosorbide mononitrate Imdur, Ismo, Monoket.

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In medicinenitroglycerin is used for angina pectorisa painful symptom of ischemic heart disease caused by inadequate flow of blood and oxygen to the heart and as a potent antihypertensive agent.

Nitroglycerin corrects the imbalance between the flow of oxygen and blood to the heart. By decreasing preload, the heart has less blood to pump, which decreases oxygen requirement since the heart does not have to work as hard. Additionally, having a smaller preload reduces the ventricular transmural pressure pressure exerted on the walls of the heartwhich decreases the compression of heart arteries to allow more blood to flow through the heart.

At higher doses, it also dilates arteries, thereby reducing afterload decreasing the pressure against which the heart must pump. Patients experiencing angina when doing certain physical activities can often prevent symptoms by taking nitroglycerin 5 to 10 minutes before the activity.

Overdoses may generate methemoglobinemia. Some forms of nitroglycerin last much longer in the body than others. Continuous exposure to nitrates has been shown to cause the body to stop responding normally to this medicine. Experts recommend that the patches be removed at night, allowing the body a few hours to restore its responsiveness to nitrates.

Shorter-acting preparations of nitroglycerin can be used several times a day with less risk of developing tolerance. These headaches can be severe enough to incapacitate some people; however, humans develop a tolerance to and dependence on nitroglycerin after long-term exposure.

Withdrawal can rarely be fatal; [28] withdrawal symptoms include chest pain and heart problems and if unacceptable may be treated with re-exposure to nitroglycerin or other suitable organic nitrates. Over the weekend, the workers lose the tolerance, and when they are re-exposed on Monday, the drastic vasodilation produces a fast heart ratedizziness, and a headache, this is referred to as "Monday disease.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set the legal limit permissible exposure limit for nitroglycerin exposure in the workplace as 0.Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a medication used for heart failure, high blood pressure, and to treat and prevent chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart (angina) or due to cocaine.

History: The Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero first made nitroglycerin in , by adding glycerol to a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids.

Sobrero’s face was badly scarred due . Nitroglycerin sublingual tablet is available as both a generic and a brand-name drug. Brand name: Nitrostat.

A sublingual tablet is a tablet that you dissolve under your tongue or inside your cheek. History. It was known almost from the time of the first synthesis of GTN by Ascanio Sobrero in that handling and tasting of nitroglycerin could cause sudden intense headaches, which suggested a vasodilation effect (as suggested by Sobrero).

Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ashio-midori.comlity in water: slightly.

Nitroglycerin: Nitroglycerin, a powerful explosive and an important ingredient of most forms of dynamite. It is also used with nitrocellulose in some propellants, especially for rockets and missiles, and it is employed as a vasodilator in the easing of cardiac pain.

Pure nitroglycerin is a colourless, oily.

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