His father Immanuel Nobel was an engineer and inventor who built bridges and buildings in Stockholm. In connection with his construction work Immanuel Nobel also experimented with different techniques for blasting rocks. Due to misfortunes in his construction work caused by the loss of some barges of building material, Immanuel Nobel was forced into bankruptcy the same year Alfred Nobel was born.
See Article History Alternative Title: Alfred Nobel was the fourth son of Immanuel and Caroline Nobel. Immanuel was an inventor and engineer who had married Caroline Andrietta Ahlsell in The couple had eight children, of whom only Alfred and three brothers reached adulthood. Alfred was prone to illness as a child, but he enjoyed a close relationship with his mother and displayed a Alfred nobels work intellectual curiosity from an early age.
He was interested in explosivesand he learned the fundamentals of engineering from his father. Immanuel, meanwhile, had failed at various business ventures until moving in to St.
Petersburg in Russia, where he prospered as a manufacturer of explosive mines and machine tools. The Nobel family left Stockholm in to join the father in St.
He was a competent chemist by age 16 and was fluent in English, French, German, and Russian as well as Swedish. Alfred Nobel left Russia in to spend a year in Paris studying chemistry and then spent four years in the United States working under the direction of John Ericssonthe builder of the ironclad warship Monitor.
Upon his return to St. After the war ended inthe company had difficulty switching to the peacetime production of steamboat machinery, and it went bankrupt in Alfred and his parents returned to Swedenwhile his brothers Robert and Ludvig stayed behind in Russia to salvage what was left of the family business.
At the time, the only dependable explosive for use in mines was black powdera form of gunpowder. A recently discovered liquid compoundnitroglycerinwas a much more powerful explosive, but it was so unstable that it could not be handled with any degree of safety.
In Nobel invented an improved detonator called a blasting cap ; it consisted of a small metal cap containing a charge of mercury fulminate that can be exploded by either shock or moderate heat.
The invention of the blasting cap inaugurated the modern use of high explosives. Nitroglycerin itself, however, remained difficult to transport and extremely dangerous to handle. Undaunted by this tragic accident, Nobel built several factories to manufacture nitroglycerin for use in concert with his blasting caps.
These factories were as safe as the knowledge of the time allowed, but accidental explosions still occasionally occurred.
By chance, he discovered that nitroglycerin was absorbed to dryness by kieselguhra porous siliceous earth, and the resulting mixture was much safer to use and easier to handle than nitroglycerin alone. He also continued to experiment in search of better ones, and in he invented a more powerful form of dynamite, blasting gelatinwhich he patented the following year.
Again by chance, he had discovered that mixing a solution of nitroglycerin with a fluffy substance known as nitrocellulose results in a tough, plastic material that has a high water resistance and greater blasting power than ordinary dynamites.
In Nobel introduced ballistiteone of the first nitroglycerin smokeless powders and a precursor of cordite. Although Nobel held the patents to dynamite and his other explosives, he was in constant conflict with competitors who stole his processes, a fact that forced him into protracted patent litigation on several occasions.
Besides explosives, Nobel made many other inventions, such as artificial silk and leather, and altogether he registered more than patents in various countries. Although his business interests required him to travel almost constantly, he remained a lonely recluse who was prone to fits of depression.
He led a retired and simple life and was a man of ascetic habits, yet he could be a courteous dinner host, a good listener, and a man of incisive wit. He never married, and apparently preferred the joys of inventing to those of romantic attachment.
He had an abiding interest in literature and wrote plays, novels, and poems, almost all of which remained unpublished. He had amazing energy and found it difficult to relax after intense bouts of work.
Among his contemporaries, he had the reputation of a liberal or even a socialist, but he actually distrusted democracyopposed suffrage for women, and maintained an attitude of benign paternalism toward his many employees.
Though Nobel was essentially a pacifist and hoped that the destructive powers of his inventions would help bring an end to war, his view of mankind and nations was pessimistic. By Nobel had developed angina pectorisand he died of a cerebral hemorrhage at his villa in San Remo, Italyin At his death his worldwide business empire consisted of more than 90 factories manufacturing explosives and ammunition.
The opening of his will, which he had drawn up in Paris on November 27,and had deposited in a bank in Stockholm, contained a great surprise for his family, friends, and the general public. He had always been generous in humanitarian and scientific philanthropies, and he left the bulk of his fortune in trust to establish what came to be the most highly regarded of international awards, the Nobel Prizes.
The document contains the source of the Nobel Prizes. He was reticent about himself, and he confided in no one about his decision in the months preceding his death. The most plausible assumption is that a bizarre incident in may have triggered the train of reflection that culminated in his bequest for the Nobel Prizes.
It is certain that the actual awards he instituted reflect his lifelong interest in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology, and literature. There is also abundant evidence that his friendship with the prominent Austrian pacifist Bertha von Suttner inspired him to establish the prize for peace.But his idealism also had a political aspect: Alfred Nobel supported those who spoke up against militarism and war, and wanted to make a contribution to work for disarmament and the peaceful solution of international conflicts.
The Heroes of Science Here's to the household names and forgotten figures who accomplished incredible feats of knowledge — no capes required. Their disproportionate participation in communism, Marxism, and socialism. Marxism is an exemplar of a universalist ideology in which ethnic and nationalist barriers within the society and indeed between societies are eventually removed in the interests of social harmony and a sense of communal interest.
Between and , the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded times to people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of individuals and 24 organizations.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
The award's official English name is The Sveriges Riksbank Prize. The Ig Nobel Prizes were awarded on Thursday night, September 22, at the 26th First Annual Ig Nobel Prize Ceremony, at Harvard's Sanders ashio-midori.com ceremony was webcast..
REPRODUCTION PRIZE [EGYPT] — The late Ahmed Shafik, for studying the effects of wearing polyester, cotton, or wool trousers on the sex life of rats, and for conducting similar tests with human males.