In this final chapter, we summarise our main conclusions in each of these areas, preceding this with a consideration of the effects of organisational and managerial diversity, before turning to assess the limitations and implications for future research and, finally, drawing out the Managerial skills development conclusion from our study.
Effects of organisational and managerial diversity The study was designed to enable analytical generalisation reflecting the diversity in the range of trusts within the NHS and across the range of employees in the NHS charged with management responsibilities.
To capture organisational diversity, three case study organisations were chosen: Our assumption was that these trusts would vary in terms of geographical spread, the number of locations from which services are provided, the diversity of services provided and the number of organisations purchasing services from them.
Empirically, these presumed differences were confirmed, although two of the three trusts did undergo substantial changes during the course of the research.
However, contextual influences are not merely objective forces acting on organisations: Therefore, a core element of our study was to identify organisational factors and aspects of change which interviewees themselves saw as impacting most powerfully on management practice and knowledge sharing.
Collectively, these differences provided a detailed and complex picture of the context within which our managers operated and represented a key element in developing our empirical and thematic analysis. Managerial diversity was equally important, particularly in the light of the contested nature of management and leadership in the NHS discussed in Chapters 3 and 4.
A key objective was to Managerial skills development conclusion that the study fully captured the distributed nature of the management and leadership in the modern NHS and avoided a too simplistic and misleading dichotomy between management and clinicians.
To ensure that this happened in a structured and meaningful way, a model of management in the NHS was developed and refined, based around a continuum of clinical and managerial training and experience see Figure 1.
The main purpose of this model was to guide us in the recruitment of research participants in each trust, using purposive and non-random samples to differentiate between broad clusters of clinical, general and functional managers in each trust.
As with the selection of case studies, these differences were necessarily broad-brush, but the empirical research was then used to reveal the substantial richness and complexity encapsulated within this simple model.
Nonetheless, these three broad management groups, alongside the three case study organisations, did provide a valuable analytical tool in our empirical and thematic analysis. Therefore, the model itself represents a novel feature and direct deliverable from our research as it provides a tool that allows us to differentiate between these three managerial groups.
Management and leadership in the health-care context As noted in the discussion in Chapter 1the study of management in health-care organisations faces a number of theoretical and empirical challenges, one of which is to work with the complex relationship between management and leadership, a theme that has been explored at long length in academic and practitioner literatures.
In particular, historical tensions between management and clinical professions result in an ongoing suspicion of and resistance to management both as a function and as a cadre.
Our analysis of health-care management, therefore, recognises the evolution of terminology in the NHS, in the first instance in the privileging of management over administration, and more recently in moves to celebrate leadership, including clinical leadership, over management.
To address management effectively, paying full recognition to its political complexity in this context, our approach in this study was to address management inductively: The first aim of our empirical research was to draw out and differentiate understandings of management and leadership as understood and practised by respondents in our study, rather than imposing meaning externally.
The result is a more complicated and contested, but nevertheless richer, picture of management in our subject organisations, as understood, practised and articulated by managers both formally and informally. This mapping out of meanings of management in our study, assisted through the development of our selection framework for managers see Figure 1led to two key findings from our research.
First, management in the NHS is not only a heterogeneous activity, but also a heterogeneous identity, in that it is distributed among a wide range of occupational groups classified by ourselves into the aggregate categories of clinical, general and functionalwhich draw upon highly diverse sources of knowledge, learning and experience and who interact through very diverse and open distinct networks of interaction and CoPs.
Second, in this milieu, it is general managers who face the greatest challenge in sharpening their sense of professional identity based around a distinct and coherent managerial knowledge base. Knowledge, knowledge mobilisation and learning To examine these knowledge processes further, the report drew upon a classical differentiation between explicit and tacit forms of management knowledge and between abstract learning and learning that is situated in practice.
This enables us to distinguish between four primary types of knowledge in our study: In turn, this system helps to draw out the challenges involved in attempting to mobilise knowledge between contexts and to abstract it from, and translate it into, practice, through processes of socialisation, externalisation, combination and internalisation.
Equally, however, there was the challenge of translating local and embodied solutions and innovations into generalisable and transferable knowledge. Similarly, this focus enabled the identification of particular barriers and gaps in this mobilisation process. A particular theme of interest in light of this framing was the role of formal training and development in management and its impact and importance when compared with other, more experiential modes of learning.
Although focused on management knowledge, the elephant in the room throughout our discussions has been the particularly influential body of professional knowledge associated with clinicians, against which managerial knowledge and understanding are often juxtaposed.
It was therefore necessary to pay attention to the ways in which management knowledge was perceived to be in competition with, or judged against, medical bodies of knowledge in the process of collective decision-making, for example. At the same time, as many of our managers were simultaneously, or formerly, clinicians, the performance of their role often relied as much on their clinical or other professional knowledge and experience and the credibility it gave them as it did on their managerial know-how.
Taking these two aspects together points to a third key finding to emerge from the research, namely the strong tendency for managerial knowledge, particularly that harnessed by general managers, to be more home grown situated in local practices and experiential.
Local pressures associated with trust reporting and management requirements combined with the hegemony of clinical know-how and the influence of a financial discourse tended to create a strong reliance on local and experiential knowledge notwithstanding the potential value of alternative, external forms of knowledge and learning.
Although our theoretical framing was substantially informed by contemporary thinking on knowledge sharing and learning, which emphasises the socially situated nature of knowledge, it also emphasises the importance of learning or knowing through social interaction in NoPs and CoPs and this is what we turn to next as the third of our major themes.
Networks and communities of practice An understanding of flows of knowledge requires an insight into the nature and dynamics of the networks and communities within which practitioners are located, opening up a consideration of the various NoPs and CoPs to which managers may belong, their role and organisation, the relationship between the interactions they enable or constrain and associated processes of socialisation and learning or exclusion and non-learning.
Despite the value of the substantial literature on CoPs that highlights the interpenetration of socialisation and knowledge-sharing processes, we also recognise the limitations of too exclusive a focus on this type of arrangement. Therefore, we focus on a broader and more extensive concept of networks, a concept which allows for a greater diversity in terms of their degree of co-ordination and cohesion, strictures on membership, the ways in which they are formed and their location within or across organisational boundaries.
Conclusion. Whether we like it or not, the days of being an island in the business world are over. As a successful program manager, you’re expected to be part of a team. The Managerial Skills Development Guide A manager is an important position for an organization. Every manager should have their own strategy of leadership style and motivation theory to effectively support and influence other employees to work hard and achieve the goal in order to gain an organizationЎ¦s competitive advantages in the complex market. INTRODUCTION TO DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS The development of “nanobombs” have caused some people Developing Management Skills is designed to help you actually improve your personal management competencies--to change your behavior. This book, therefore, serves more as a practicum or a guide to effective.
To be clear, several of the networks examined empirically in the study do indeed display the cohesion of a CoP, but many are significantly more informal, loose, open and flat or distributed networks, which nonetheless play a key role in knowledge mobilisation and socialisation for the managers in our study.
To capture the meaning and significance of these networks, we set out to discover what networks exist, how they function and what purpose they serve for the managers in each trust.
In other words, the process was an inductive one of ascertaining the network connections of salience and importance to managers, rather than a narrow but more constrained focus on formal, closed or centralised networks and, especially, those with a highly performative focus on narrow instrumental goals.The Managerial Skills Development Guide A manager is an important position for an organization.
Every manager should have their own strategy of leadership style and motivation theory to effectively support and influence other employees to work hard and achieve the goal in order to gain an organizationÐŽ¦s competitive advantages in the .
Being a good manager has less to do with knowledge of a companys main field of activity and more with displaying a range of so-called "people skills".
While this detail is common knowledge in todays business world, what exactly are the main skills in a managers arsenal remains a rather grey area.
Leadership training and development programmes (e.g. via the NHS Leadership Academy) need to ensure that the development of leadership takes account of the complex relationship between leadership skills and management practice on the ground.
Managerial Skills Development Self-management, management and corporate management 09 April Knowledge and managerial skills-Team and teamwork-Team manager vs Group manager-Defining the roles in the team – Conclusion.
Aleksandra Todorovska PwC Manager at PwC and associate of the .
|The Managerial Skills Development Guide - Essay||Being a successful manager should have the leadership styles of developing a harmony and trustful relationships with employees at the position of giving appropriate direction and support others to accomplish an organizational goal.|
Management skills overlap with leadership skills, as both involve problem-solving, decision-making, planning, delegation, communication, and time ashio-midori.com managers are often good leaders. And yet the two roles are distinct. "Managerial Skills Development Conclusion" Essays and Research Papers Managerial Skills Development Conclusion The Managerial Skills Development Guide A manager is an important position for an organization.