Among other spectacular findings, he discovered a strange plant used by Native Americans.
Received Sep 12; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear.
We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, including product safety, efficacy for smoking cessation and reduction, use among non-smokers, use among youth, marketing and advertisement, use in public places, renormalization of a smoking culture, and market ownership.
Overall, the safety profile of e-cigarettes is unlikely to warrant serious public health concerns, particularly given the known adverse health effects associated with tobacco cigarettes.
As a result, it is unlikely that the population-level harms resulting from e-cigarette uptake among non-smokers would overshadow the public health gains obtained from tobacco harm reduction among current smokers. While the existence of a gateway effect for youth remains uncertain, e-cigarette use in this population should be discouraged.
Similarly, marketing and advertisement should remain aligned with the degree of known product risk and should be targeted to current smokers. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals.
E-cigarettes, Harm reduction, Ethics Background Electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes have polarized the public health community Philip morris ethical issues essay any previous alternative to smoking. Although their efficacy as smoking cessation aids remains unclear [ 1 ], anecdotal evidence suggests that many people have successfully quit smoking with the use of e-cigarettes.
Due to their similarity in form and function to tobacco cigarettes, e-cigarettes could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, intense divisiveness has resulted from the absence of conclusive evidence demonstrating product safety for individual and public health.
Several ethical issues have been identified pertaining to their use both as recreational products and harm reduction devices, including their potential appeal to non-smokers, their potential to act as a gateway to cigarette smoking, and their potential to renormalize a public smoking culture.
To this end, we examined the ethical issues surrounding the availability and use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, with the objective of understanding their potential contributions to public health. Specifically, our framework draws upon tensions between utilitarianism and liberalism in public health ethics [ 2 ], the former aiming to produce the largest public health gains through the greatest reduction in the burden of disease, and the latter holding paramount individuals' right to self-determination in health.
The burden of smoking-attributable disease Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable mortality worldwide, contributing to the death of approximatelyAmericans annually [ 3 ].
Smoking also produces substantial morbidity costs: Cessation efforts have largely failed to address the wealth of behavioral and social components to cigarette addiction.
The majority of the lifestyle benefits conferred by cigarette smoking, including alertness, focus, stress reduction, and social opportunities [ 56 ], are not comparably paralleled with existing smoking cessation therapies.
In addition, among the strongest habit-forming properties of tobacco cigarettes are the behavioral cues associated with their use, including regular hand-to-mouth action and the production of smoke [ 78 ].
Consequently, there is an urgent need for novel cessation therapies that target both the physiological and behavioral components of cigarette smoking. A device that retains the feel and function of cigarettes and reduces their associated health costs could lead to substantial public health benefits.
Given their striking similarity to tobacco cigarettes and their high degree of acceptability among smokers [ 9 — 11 ], e-cigarettes constitute the closest approximation to such a harm reduction device to date. The role of tobacco harm reduction in public health Harm reduction policies attempt to diminish the damaging effects of a particular behavior without aiming to eliminate the behavior itself.
Common applications include the provision of needle exchanges and safe injection kits to injection drug users, and the use of methadone to treat opiate addiction. Despite continued resistance to harm reduction interventions, there is strong evidence demonstrating their successes in public health, most notably in reducing the incidence of HIV and Hepatitis C infection [ 12 — 14 ].
Critics may argue that tobacco harm reduction, as it applies to e-cigarettes, remains distinct from harm reduction for other forms of drug addiction. While there is no definitive evidence that either e-cigarettes or needle exchanges promote substance initiation among non-users, critics have expressed concerns about the possibility of a gateway effect of e-cigarettes towards conventional cigarettes [ 15 ].
In addition, unlike e-cigarettes, needle exchanges are not backed by powerful political lobbyists or for-profit companies [ 15 ]. Lastly, injection drug use is comparably invisible relative to the conspicuousness of using an e-cigarette in public [ 15 ].
While these important distinctions highlight the need for closer examination, they do not inherently exclude the harm reduction potential of e-cigarettes. The burden of smoking-related illness suggests that novel public health interventions designed to reduce the harms associated with cigarette smoking are needed.
Despite the fact that an elimination-centered approach is incongruous with the understanding that harm reduction strategies are more practical and feasible than enforcing population-wide abstinence [ 18 ], anti-tobacco activists have expressed concern that harm reduction might overshadow cessation messages, effectively resulting in a reduction in the number of successful quitters [ 19 ].May 19, · new topic international ethical issues new topic ethical issues in john q new topic ethical issues of cloning Ethical Issues In Globalization And International.
In , Gustav Eckmeyer incorporated Philip Morris & Co. Ltd. in New York. was an important year for PM & Co., Ltd.: the Philip Morris coronet logo was introduced, the company was acquired in the United States by an American, shareholder held company, and it was incorporated under the name Philip Morris & Co., Ltd., Inc.
in Virginia. In. Accounting – Ethics The tobacco companies have paid billions because of smoking-related illnesses. In particular, Philip Morris, a leading cigarette manufacturer, paid more than $3,,, in settlement payments in one year. MBA- Business Ethics Unit II: Essay “An Analysis of Ethical Issues in Philip Morris USA Tobacco Company” Submitted by: Thanh Canh Course: MBA Business Ethics (Graded /) This preview has intentionally blurred sections%(17).
Ethics Issues University of Phoenix MGT Organizational Ethics and Social Responsibility 20th July, Ethics Issues Less than a year ago a regional property supervisor working for California Commercial Investment found an accountant stealing from the company. In , Gustav Eckmeyer incorporated Philip Morris & Co.
Ltd. in New York. was an important year for PM & Co., Ltd.: the Philip Morris coronet logo was introduced, the company was acquired in the United States by an American, shareholder held company, and it was incorporated under the name Philip Morris & Co., Ltd., Inc.
in Virginia. In.