The Committee was asked to look at the educational needs and attainments of children from the whole range of ethnic minority groups bearing in mind factors relating to pre-school experiences and prospects for school leavers. As a first step, however, the Committee was required to prepare an interim report on the particular needs and attainments of West Indian children. The report stresses that virtually all these children are British-born. In preparing its interim report, the Committee received written and oral evidence from a wide range of individuals and organisations including many representatives of the West Indian community and between January and July members spent over days visiting schools and other institutions around the country.
Which values are good Summarise the positive and negative effects which bad, if any? Which values are to be tolerated even if their rightness is controversial? Has one a right to express and teach values?
Can any science or doctrine be neutral with regard to values? These are key issues of psychic and social development, not facts merely to observe and describe. The modern tendency is to avoid firm and definitive statements of values, often in the imagined interests of maintaining a reputation for scientific objectivity or of cultural and social tolerance.
This widely prevalent misconception assumes that the spirit of truth and liberality somehow binds us to remain passive observers and never to intervene in the free-for-all of moral conflict by asserting positive values. The long-bemoaned loss of central values through the disruptions of traditional religious society and the consequent value relativism in all fields, from science and the humanities to religion, from morals to the arts, as world cultures come into contact and clash with one another has blinded the humanities to the existence of common denominator values that have always existed and been practiced to various extents in great world cultures.
All the social sciences, from history to social anthropology, have failed to discern clearly the common essence of religions, cultures and societies, with the consequent chronic inability to isolate which values are necessary to the good life, whatever the race or creed.
The human sciences have taken refuge in the flawed doctrine of value neutrality, psychologists tend to be uncertain about professionally defending any values, other than the scientifically motivating value of truth, in case they are then seen as moralists, absolutists and worse.
But all values - and the corresponding anti-values - are so much part and parcel of everyone's life that no psychologist is uninfluenced by them in any important decision. The desire to keep psychology clinically-cleansed of values so as to maintain its standing as a supposedly 'value-free' or value-neutral science has been institutionalised in the codes of most officially supported forms of psychology the world over.
World conditions today therefore call desperately for truly human science that not only describes ethical values scientifically, but is itself ethically-directed in its approach to all questions.
Through the intelligent application of definitive values, both in theory and practice, psychology becomes a dynamic force for the good, rather than a floundering academic tradition playing at being a natural science.
To do so it must not only articulate and explain values, but assert them in the face of anti-values.
This obviously need not exclude objective and comparative research into values and their consequences, experimentally and otherwise. Any theory of human values or principles must show its value in practice as well as having explanatory power in theory. The why's and wherefores of values - and also unfortunately anti-values - as expressed in a wide variety of ways in words and actions - provide major themes for research.
It has become essential to recognise that the much-discussed degeneration, destruction and lack of values today has to do with their relative neglect in upbringing, education and not least in the sciences of psychology and pedagogy. The values according to or against which we act are the unavoidable and essential element of all important decisions in the human arena.
Values are the link that tie together personal perceptions and judgements, motives and actions. The same applies in understanding social and political life. A make-or-break idea is that values or precepts - and their various practical consequences in life - are at least as fundamental to understanding man and society as are the much-vaunted physical necessities.
They are also essential in improving man and society too. Values, even more than observable facts, are keys to understanding the reality behind the scene outwardly presented by human behaviour.
Motives and purposes are value determinations. The best-attested of 'facts' can alter colour when explained by an interpreter. They appear in deeper perspective when looked upon as the result of meaningful, intentional 'acts' provided the acts were voluntary.
An action that seemed good at first can be seen as bad from a proper appreciation of motives, or unfortunate when the practical consequences are known. Both these viewpoints are attitudinal assumptions, and the test of them is which is likely to prove more fruitful. Only by adopting one, then following up the consequences of so doing, can its rationality and fruitfulness or practical validity be evaluated.
The relevant information for deciding this is itself doubtless extremely manifold and its overall interpretation is fraught with difficulty. History, anthropology and the comparative humanities all provide evidence that must somehow be interpreted or judged, as does world philosophy, literature and religion.
This difficulty is much aggravated, however, if one lacks some firm, inclusive and consistent overall understanding of the human being to work from, which is one reason for the present such view based on Vedantic insights.
Psychological theories always tend to have some kind of legitimising effect, as well as a self-fulfilling leaning: Likewise, Marxian theory has attempted to justify - and has historically hastened attempts at - changing society through revolution.
Those who hold physicalistic theories strongly, may themselves tend to validate various consequences of their own theories in their own behaviour, not least because of this mind-set.
A simple example shows how 'scientific prophesies' can have mass psychological and practical influence; a study of the opinions of private car owners, combined with measurement of traffic trends, suggests that more roads be built, which then attract more traffic, thus 'fulfilling' the continuation of the original trend.
More important psychologically perhaps is laying much weight on the evolutionary animal origin of the human being, which tends to legitimise more animalistic behaviour than would emphasis on human discernment and conscience as our inherent intellectual, moral faculty.
Ideas and theories can work in various subtle ways to become long-term self-fulfilling prophesies.Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarise evidence relating to efficacy and safety of healthcare interventions accurately and reliably.
The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, are not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to. Table 1: the components of the PETTLEP model.
P – Physical. This is arguably the most important PETTLEP component. Rather than conceptualising imagery as something entirely different from physical practice, here imagery is seen as a physical process with measurable physiological outcomes.
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