The definition of thinking: The mind is the idea while thinking processes of the brain involved in processing information such as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, to reason and make decisions.
Logos is the Greek root word from which the English logic is derived. You might be thinking that logic is dry and boring. While you may not get turned on by logical analysis, it is critical to your success. Before we can see why logos matters to you as a speaker, however, we need to define a few terms.
Deductive reasoning, and Inductive reasoning Deductive Reasoning Deductive reasoning consists of one or more deductive arguments.
You generally start with one or more premises, and then derive a conclusion from them. Premises can be facts, claims, evidence, or a previously proven conclusion.
The key is that in a deductive argument, if your premises are true, then your conclusion must be true. For example, consider the following deductive argument: Audiences hate all boring things.
Inductive Reasoning Inductive reasoning is similar in that it consists of premises which lead to a conclusion. The difference is that the conclusion is not guaranteed to be true — we can only state it with some degree of confidence. For example, consider the following inductive argument: All Six Minutes articles you have read in the past were insightful.
It must be inferred. You are trying to convince your audience to try a new weight-loss diet.
You claim that the new diet reduces hunger. This is a sound, deductive conclusion which must be true if premises A, B, and C are true.
What could your audience be thinking? Every diet I have tried in the past has failed miserably. This is a reasonable inductive conclusion drawn from premises D and E.
Because their own conclusion is based on strong, emotional experiences i. Since your audience has to resolve these conflicting conclusions, they will look to your arguments for flaws. Although your deductive conclusion is sound, they will doubt your premises: Your success depends on your ability to simultaneously make your argument stronger and competing arguments weaker.
You can boost your argument by providing supporting facts, diet research, or even your personal success story with the new diet. You also must show why this new diet is unlike all those past failed diets. If successful, you would significantly cast doubt on premise E, and their entire inductive argument.
Kill Two Birds with a Single Stone: You may wonder how you can persuade anyone of anything.
Commonplaces are simply beliefs which are widely held. This commonplace would make it hard for you to convince them to join a club that meets in the dinner hour. This commonplace means that they are particularly receptive to ideas which promise to improve organizational communication.
This commonplace would be a good starting point to persuade members of your school board not to ban controversial classics from the school library. There are two keys to using commonplaces in your speeches: Commonplaces can be used as often unstated premises in your speeches.
You can use them just as you would use any other fact or claim. A wonderful example of this second principle is provided by Jay Heinrichs in Thank you for Arguingpage The Foundation is a non-profit organization that seeks to promote essential change in education and society through the cultivation of fairminded critical thinking--thinking which embodies intellectual empathy, intellectual humility, intellectual perseverance, intellectual integrity and intellectual responsibility.
Practical critical thinking is often expressed as a long-term, implicit goal of teachers of psychology, even though they may not spend much academic time teaching how to transfer critical thinking skills to make students wise consumers, more careful judges of character, or more cautious interpreters of behavior.
Critical Thinking Critical thinking is an important concept.
It is an important concept in education, as well as in everyday life. Dartmouth Writing Program support materials - including development of argument. Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing. Mind Mirror Projects: A Tool for Integrating Critical Thinking into the English Language Classroom (), by Tully, in English Teaching Forum, State Department, Number 1 Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project, Metropolitan Community College.
Psychology, scientific discipline that studies mental states and processes and behaviour in humans and other animals.. The discipline of psychology is broadly divisible into two parts: a large profession of practitioners and a smaller but growing science of mind, brain, and social ashio-midori.com two have distinctive goals, training, and practices, but some psychologists integrate the two.
Critical thinking the awakening of A Definition Critical thinking is that mode of thinking - about any subject, A well cultivated critical thinker.